In this draft paper, Römkens et al. from Wageningen Environmental Research present current cadmium levels in EU soils at a regional, national and EU level, and look at the impact of different cadmium levels in fertilisers after 100 years.
Arianne Phosphate Inc. (on TSX-V under the symbol, “DAN”) is a Canadian mineral exploration company focused on developing its Lac à Paul greenfield project, one of the largest greenfield phosphate projects in the world, Lac à Paul will provide supply security to key markets within North America and Europe.
The Lac à Paul Project has 472 million tonnes reserve at 6.9% p2o5 and it plans 26 years mine life, 78 million tonnes of high cut-off grade concentrate (38.6% p2o5) and 1000 direct and indirect jobs during the operation of the mine.
Lac à Paul’s location, in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region, Province of Québec, Canada, is a mining and investment-friendly jurisdiction with well-developed infrastructure, provides a stable and supportive environment to advance the Project’s development. The region features clean energy, heavy haul roads, deep water port and skilled local labour.
Foskor is a South African igneous phosphate rock producer. Foskor operates a phosphate rock mine in Phalaborwa, Limpopo Province and Foskor has sulphuric acid, phosphoric acid and granular phosphate fertilisers plants that are operated in Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal Province. Foskor supplies phosphate products to Europe, Asia, Latin America, Middle East, South Africa and the SADC. South African Development Community (SADC).
Foskor is capable of producing over 2.4 million tons of phosphate rock per annum. The company’s proven phosphate reserves are estimated at over 70 years. The phosphate rock grade produced by Foskor is typically 36.50% P2O5. Foskor’s phosphate product offering is among the purest in the industry. The heavy metals are very low. In particular, cadmium is less than 1 ppm, almost untraceable.
From its mine, Palfos B is railed to Richards Bay for mainly its own phosphoric acid production as well as export of phosphate rock to export markets. Foskor also rails phosphate rock to Maputo Port for export purposes.
Kropz is an explorer, mine developer, miner and supplier of phosphate rock to sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide markets.
Kropz has developed South Africa’s largest sedimentary phosphate deposit, known as Elandsfontein - the world’s newest and most innovative phosphate mine, with a capacity to produce up to 1,5 Mtpamillion tonnes per year of 32% P2O5 phosphate rock from a highly automated processing plant (Earth Plant 1) with online analysis and advanced process control. Streamline mining methods and efficiencies in Earth Plant 1 allow for continuity of production, which is expected to continue for the current 15-year life of mine. Elandsfontein is in its advanced commissioning phase.
Elandsfontein Phosphate Rock is of high, consistent quality and is low in cadmium and other impurities. This is vital in ensuring that phosphate-based fertilisers used in soils do not contaminate the food we eat and that long-term human health risks are eliminated.
Elandsfontein is ideally positioned for domestic and export logistics, ensuring timely supply in addition to an ethical route to market. Kropz has dedicated warehousing, ship berthing and loading facilities at the deep water Port of Saldanha, which is located just 40km from the mine via a national freight road.
Elandsfontein phosphate will be distributed globally by international mineral fertiliser trading companies, supplying over 111 countries from 15 offices around the world, for direct application as well as to be beneficiated into superphosphate and phosphoric acid.
At the heart of Kropz lies its caring approach towards its people and communities, as well as the environments in which it operates with the goal of Elandsfontein becoming the world’s first truly green mining operation. Kropz has established the Greenheart Foundation, through which all community upliftment initiatives are channelled.
Operating high quality and modern manufacturing assets across Russia, PhosAgro is one of the largest suppliers of agricultural nutrients globally. Its strength is based on integration into raw materials. This includes a complex of igneous phosphate mines in the Kola Peninsula and access to low cost natural gas.
PhosAgro’s phosphate rock resources are estimated at around 2.0 billion tonnes which is sufficient for around 60 years of continuous mining at present rates. Its rock offering is considered among the most concentrated materials in the industry, 39-40% P2O5, compared to a global average of 30-31%. This not only benefits downstream manufacturing, using fewer raw materials during processing and by implication generating less waste, but also improves logistics efficiency.
From its mines, the Kola rock is transferred to one of three production sites in the west and south of the country. Here it is combined with nitrogen and potassium to produce a range of bulk and complex fertilisers, feed supplements for the livestock industry and industrial grades of phosphate. In total, the company has the capability to produce in excess of 8 million tonnes of downstream product each year. These are distributed to customers in over 100 countries around the globe.
PhosAgro’s offering is among the purest in the industry, with virtually no harmful trace elements. This means that its consumers avoid contaminating their soils/crops and animals with dangerous heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and arsenic, which could pose a long-term health risk.
Tradient Group is a prominent exporter of rock phosphate for fertilisers, since 1999. Its strength lies in sourcing of quality phosphates from government owned mines in the Arab Republic of Egypt.
Egyptian phosphate reserves are estimated at about 1.20 billion tonnes (USGS estimate), and Tradient is in a position to offer supplies of 500,000 MT of P2O5 29-30% per year from the mines of Sebaiya region, in the Eastern desert of Egypt, scaleable to 2 million MT per year.
Phosphates from the Sebaiya region have been proven to have low levels of heavy metals; cadmium 3-11 mg/kg, lead 4-12 mg/kg and arsenic < 0.25 mg/kg. Such qualities make the material safe and its use sustainable for the development of healthy food product.